A biological sample transport container is provided for transporting vials containing medical or laboratory specimens. The container comprises a hollow encasement portion having a base wall, a pair of side walls and a pair of end walls. A plurality of shock absorbent blocks are furnished having at least one hole extending through at least one block for holding the vials. The blocks rest upon the base wall between the side walls and the end walls. In addition, a cover lid and a guide mechanism for guiding the cover lid over the block of shock absorbent material is provided. The guide mechanism is disposed in the end walls of the encasement cover above the blocks. A jacket having a jacket cover and a jacket body is hingedly connected to the jacket body. The jacket body surrounds the hollow encasement portion whereby a fastening mechanism for releasable securing the closure of the jacket securely restrains the cover lid from being dislodged from the guide means.