Electrochemical microsensors formed of a substrate containing means for sensing potential or current, including active and passive electronic devices and electronic circuits, and a micromachined structure containing at least one cavity overlying the sensing means, wherein the structure and substrate are bonded together at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C., in the absence of high voltage fields, using means not requiring highly planarized surfaces. A wide variety of materials can be utilized for both the substrate and overlying structure.
Diverse embodiments are possible, having in common a cavity containing a chemically sensitive material and means for sensing potential or current.
The resulting structural organization of materials transduces a chemical signal, such as concentration, to an electrical signal, which is then "processed" by the underlying FET or metallic connections. The present invention resolves the problems of the prior art in combining sensing devices with chemically sensitive material(s) to form a functional microsensor in a conveniently manufacturable fashion.