Several specific types of optical sensors capable of measuring temperature, pressure, force, acceleration, radiation and electrical fields, fluid level, vapor pressure, and the like, are disclosed, along with an electro-optical system for detecting the optical signal developed by the sensor. One such probe utilizes a convex shaped structure consisting of an elastomeric material attached to an end of an optical fiber, the elastomeric material being coated with a luminescent material, a combination that is capable of measuring both temperature and pressure. Such a probe is also specifically adapted for measuring surface temperature by making a good physical contact with the surface being measured. Another such probe utilizes a similar structure but of a non-elastomeric material for the purpose of detecting both temperature and either index of refraction of vapor pressure changes. Improvements in other existing sensors of a wide variety of physical parameters other than temperature are also described wherein temperature is simultaneously measured for correcting such physical parameter measurements that are affected by temperature variations.