Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from oil shale and other solids containing organic material by heating the solids to a temperature below about 900.degree. F., preferably between about 550.degree. F. and about 900.degree. F., in the absence of an added liquid organic solvent and then contacting the heated solids with a liquid organic solvent in such a manner that the solids and solvent do not form a slurry and under conditions such that hydrocarbons are extracted from the heated solids into the organic solvent. The extracted hydrocarbons are then recovered from the solvent by fractionation. Normally, the solids will be heated by contacting them with a hot, nonoxidizing gas, preferably an oxygen-free flue gas generated within the process.