A surgical instrument storage and transporting assembly which facilitates the sterilization, storage, protection, handling and presentment during surgery of a variety of surgical instruments and devices. An outer box-like enclosure having a removable top, contains a wire basket in which are placed a plurality of instrument carrying modules. The individual modules are provided with an instrument gripping member which positively, but releasably, holds the instruments in a first predetermined order and orientation when being stored in the box-like enclosure, but which permits placement of the instruments in the same order, but in a second orientation to facilitate the location and selection of given instruments during the course of a surgical procedure when the modules have been removed from the basket and placed on the surgical stand. When the instruments, instrument modules and basket are placed in the enclosure and covered with the removable top, the entire unit can be put in an autoclave and subjected to sterilizing steam which, because of the proper attention to hole patterns in the enclosure, the modules and the instrument supports, a free flow of steam takes place to ensure total sterilization. Because the individual instruments are positively held, they do not become loose and scrambled even during rough handling.