Methods and apparatus are provided for qualitative and quantitative analysis utilizing the Raman effect. Analyses are obtainable without exercise of human judgment or human interpretation. Analyses may be obtained on-line in the field or in a laboratory. A wide range of fluids and solids are capable of rapid routine analysis without major adjustment of equipment. An analysis is obtained by comparing a Raman spectrum of the unknown sample to Raman spectra of samples whose analysis is known. The known Raman spectra are stored in computing means in digital form and the comparison is accomplished by the computing means.