A digital data processing system has a memory organized into objects containing at least operands and instructions. Each object is identified by a unique and permanent identifier code which identifies the data processing system and the object. The system uses a protection technique to prevent unauthorized access to objects by users who are identified by a subject number which identifies the user, a process of the system for executing a user's procedure, and the type of operation of the system to be performed by the user's procedure. An access control list for each object includes an access control list entry for each subject having access rights to the object and means for confirming that a particular active subject has access rights to a particular object before permitting access to the object. The system also includes stacks for containing information relating to the current state of execution of the system.