04343993 is referenced by 186 patents.

The vacuum tunnel effect is utilized to form a scanning tunneling microscope. In an ultra-high vacuum at cryogenic temperature, a fine tip is raster scanned across the surface of a conducting sample at a distance of a few Angstroms. The vertical separation between the tip and sample surface is automatically controlled so as to maintain constant a measured variable which is proportional to the tunnel resistance, such as tunneling current. The position of the tip with respect to the surface is controlled preferably by piezo electric drive means acting in three coordinate directions. The spatial coordinates of the scanning tip are graphically displayed. This is conveniently done by displaying the drive currents or voltages of piezo electric drives.

Title
Scanning tunneling microscope
Application Number
6/186923
Publication Number
4343993
Application Date
September 12, 1980
Publication Date
August 10, 1982
Inventor
Heinrich Rohrer
Richterswil
CH
Gerd Binnig
Richterswil
CH
Agent
Ronald L Drumheller
Assignee
International Business Machines Corporation
NY, US
IPC
G01N 23/00
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