A pharmaceutical sample storage system in which the accommodation volume of a case is increased is disclosed and claimed. The molding of the storage rack is easy. The cases in the storage rack are locked in place and will not fall out even if the storage rack is turned upside down. Placing and removing cases from the storage rack is highly accurate. The sample storage system is sealed and the storage rack vertically accommodates a plurality of cases in a matrix. The cases are rectangular in cross-section and are hollow. The cases are tapered toward the bottom portion of the case and the outer surfaces of the cases are chamfered. The storage rack has a lower grate-shaped bottom portion which is partitioned by cross members. The bottom portion of the case being fitted into one partitioned portion of the grate-shaped bottom portion and has case supporting pins vertically provided upward from each intersection of gratings or cross members of the grated bottom portion.