20030096497-A1 is referenced by 12 patents.
An electrode structure includes a first layer of conductive material and a dielectric layer formed on a surface of the first layer. An opening is formed in the dielectric layer to expose a portion of the surface of the first layer. A binding layer is formed on the dielectric layer and on the exposed portion of the surface of the first layer and a second layer of conductive material is formed on the conductive binding layer. The binding layer can be an oxide and the second layer a conductive material that is diffusible into an oxide. The electrode structure can be annealed to cause conductive material from the second layer to be chemisorbed into the binding layer to improve adhesion between the first and second layers. A programmable cell can be formed by forming a doped glass layer in the electrode structure.